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Beware of these 6 Major Communicable Diseases in India

By Juhi Walia
24 August 2022, 3:19 PM

Over 1.2 billion people globally are at risk of contracting communicable diseases due to poor sanitation, lack of proper hygiene practices, and restricted access to clean drinking water and food. India, a developing nation, is plagued with communicable diseases transmitted through contact with human fluids and blood, an airborne virus, insect bites, and other means. These illnesses are also referred to as infectious and contagious diseases. Therefore, if you are diagnosed with a communicable disease, you should protect yourself financially with a health insurance policy. Let's begin by familiarizing ourselves with the many categories of communicable diseases.

What is a Communicable Disease?

A disease that can be spread by coming into contact with infected people is considered communicable. Additionally, it might be brought on by contaminated items, food, etc., and direct or indirect disease vectors. Additionally, it is impossible for people to breathe outside due to the intense dry heat and significant air pollution levels in regions like Delhi/NCR. Residents now face an extremely high risk of sickness as a result of these conditions. The list of communicable diseases is constantly evolving and is a major reason for worry.

List of Major Communicable Diseases in India

1. COVID-19

It is a contagious illness, also known as the coronavirus, which has significantly impacted our lives since its outbreak in late 2019. The virus SARS-CoV-2 is to blame for. Coronavirus infection causes mild to moderate respiratory disease in those who contract it. In most situations, the virus won't need special treatment, but it can be fatal for those with chronic respiratory problems, diabetes or cardiovascular illnesses.

When an infected person coughs, sneezes, etc., it might spread from their mouth or nose. The best approach to be safe is to follow the rules, which include keeping a safe distance from others, washing your hands frequently, wearing a mask, and isolating yourself when you're sick. If you haven't already, get vaccinated as soon as possible is advised to avoid contracting the deadly Coronavirus.

2. Malaria 

Another potentially fatal parasitic disease that is transmitted to humans by infected Anopheles mosquitoes through their bites. The primary symptoms may start 10 to 15 days after the infected mosquito bite and include headaches, chills, or fever. Finding out if you have malaria might be challenging. It can result in severe sickness or even death if untreated. Children under the age of five, pregnant women, infants, and people with HIV are most vulnerable to contracting malaria. A family health insurance plan can be quite helpful if you have kids because it can help you treat them in an emergency.

3. Tuberculosis 

The airborne illness tuberculosis, also known as TB, is spread by droplet nuclei of 1 to 5 microns in size. When someone sneezes, coughs, talks, or laughs, the bacteria from their larynx or lungs might spread through the air and infect the other person. An individual's throat or lungs become infected with TB illness. The TB bacteria can travel through the blood to other bodily organs like the spine, kidney, and brain if not detected early. Under the DOTS programme, the total anticipated cost of treating this condition is low but it takes a long time. As a result, it could put a strain on the patient's and his or her family's finances. 

4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

One of the world's most potent and conveniently spread illnesses is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The immune system is weakened because it affects and kills CD4 cells in the human body. HIV is a sexually transmitted disease that can potentially be passed from a pregnant woman to her unborn child. Additionally, it can spread through nursing, sharing contaminated needles and razors, and blood transfusions. Antiretroviral therapy (ART), a costly pharmaceutical class, is used for treating HIV. To pay the cost of therapy, health insurance for HIV is advised.

5. Typhoid

A systemic infection that manifests in a person as a fever and gastrointestinal symptoms brought on by paratyphi and Salmonella typhi. Another name for typhoid is enteric fever. The germs enter the body either by ingesting contaminated water or food or through contact with an infected person's excrement. Typhoid is rarely transmitted directly from one person to another. It is a widespread health problem that typically affects kids older than one year.

6. Hepatitis

Acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) hepatitis are communicable diseases that can inflame the liver. The symptoms of hepatitis B, C, A, and D vary from mild to severe, yet they are all transmitted through blood transfusion from an infected person. Abdominal discomfort, fever, appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, joint pain, weakness, and exhaustion are the main signs and symptoms of hepatitis. Antiviral therapy, an expensive procedure, is the best treatment for any type of hepatitis. To pay for the medical costs associated with treating this disease, you must have health insurance.


India is experiencing an upsurge in communicable diseases as a result of improper hygiene and ignorance. Most diseases have minor symptoms that are difficult to identify. It can, however, be lethal if left untreated. As a result, it's critical to educate yourself on the most prevalent communicable diseases, be aware of their symptoms, and take the appropriate precautions. A good health insurance plan protects you from unexpected and unforeseen medical costs. However, you could do yourself a favour by researching health insurance plans online before choosing the one that best meets your needs.

Note - The scope of communicable diseases in some journals may be restricted to those transmitted from human to human. We’ve also included insect-borne diseases.

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1. What are the factors that cause a communicable disease?

A communicable disease can be transmitted via contact with human fluids and blood, an airborne virus, insect bites, contamination of food or water, or direct or indirect disease vectors.

2. What are the symptoms of Hepatisis?

The symptoms may range from mild to severe and are transmitted via blood transfusion of an infected person. The primary signs and symptoms of hepatitis are abdominal pain, fever, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, joint pain, weakness, and weariness.

3. Are communicable diseases covered under health insurance?

Yes, comprehensive health insurance policies offer coverage against contagious diseases, for hospitalisation expenses, both pre and post. 

4. Which are the most common communicable diseases in India?

COVID-19, malaria, tuberculosis, HIV AIDS, hepatitis and typhoid are some common communicable diseases prevalent in India.

5. What are the preventive measures recommended against communicable diseases?

The following precautions are advised by medical professionals: 

  • After travelling or touching any public surfaces, wash your hands.
  • Cover your face or nose when sneezing.
  • Use hand sanitizers regularly.
  • Prepare meals after thoroughly washing your produce or meat.
  • Practice safe sex.
  • If you feel weak or unwell, stay at home.
  • Vaccinate yourself.
  • Refrain from contacting shared surfaces.
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